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antiquity, Ardennes, ataman, barb, bey, Boulogne, Brabant, brachycephalic, Brest, Bretagne, Brittany, caliph, Celt, chevalier, chivalry, chronological, Cossack, Crimean War, Diluvium, dimorphism, dolichocephalic, Equidae, equine, Equus, estuaryFlanders, fjord, Gaul, habitus, halophile, hegira, Herodotus, heterosis, innate, Kalmyk, karst, Kirgiz, latifundiumlymphatic , marshMesopotamia, Moor, morphology, Noricum Nordic, Norman, Numidia, osteology, oxidation, phylogeny, Parthenon, Persia, Phoenicia, Picardy, Pliocene, Poitiers, relievo, remount, SamarkandSaracen, Selene, StraboTeutonic, Tyrol, VandalWorld War I, World War IIYenisei,

an-tiq-ui-ty (an-tikwi-te) an-tiq-ui-ties. Abbr. antiq., ant. 1. Ancient times, especially the times preceding the Middle Ages. 2. The people, especially the writers and artisans, of ancient times: inventions unknown to antiquity. 3. The quality of being old or ancient; considerable age: a carving of great antiquity. 4. Often antiquities. Something, such as an object or a relic, belonging to or dating from ancient times.
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Ar-dennes (ar-den)A plateau region of northern France, southeast Belgium, and northern Luxembourg east and south of the Meuse River. It was the scene of heavy fighting in World War I and World War II, notably during the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944 and January 1945. (map here)
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at-a-man (at-man) at-a-mans. A Cossack chief. Also called hetman. [Russian, from South Turkic, leader of an armed band : ata, father + -man, augmentative suff.]

barb2(barb) n.
1. A horse of a breed introduced by the Moors into Spain from northern Africa that resembles the Arabians and is known for its speed and endurance. [French barbe, from Italian barbero, Berber, from Vulgar Latin*Barbaria, Barbary States.
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bey (ba)n. 1. A provincial governor in the Ottoman Empire. 2. A ruler of the former kingdom of Tunis. Used as the title for such a ruler. 3. Used formerly as a title for various Turkish and Egyptian dignitaries.[Turkish, from Old Turkic beg, ruler, prince.]

Bou-logne (boo-lon, -lony) also Bou-logne-sur-Mer (-sur-mer)A city of northern France on the English Channel north-northwest of Amiens. Of Celtic origin, it is the leading fishing port of France. Population, 47,653.
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Bra-bant (br-bant, -bant, brabnt, -bant)A region and former duchy of the Netherlands. It became an independent duchy in 1190 and is now divided between the southern Netherlands and north-central Belgium.

brach-y-ce-phal-ic (braki-s-falik) also brach-y-ceph-a-lous (-sef-ls)adj. Having a short, broad head with a cephalic index over 80.--brach'y-ceph'a-ly (-sef-le). or brach'y-ceph'a-lism n.
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Brest (brest) 1. A city of northwest France on an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean. Its large landlocked harbor was built in 1631 by Cardinal Richelieu as a military base and arsenal. Population, 156,060. 

Bre-tagne (br-tany) See Brittany

Brit-ta-ny (britn-e) also Bre-tagne (br-tany )A historical region and former province of northwest France on a peninsula between the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay. It was settled c. 500 by Britons driven out of their homeland by the Anglo-Saxons. The region was formally incorporated into France in 1532.
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ca-liph also ca-lif or kha-lif (kalif, kalif)n. A male leader of an Islamic polity.[Middle English calife, from Old French, from Arabic halifah, successor (to Mohammed), caliph, from halafa, to succeed.]

1. a member of a European people who occupied Britain and Spain and Gaul in pre-Roman times

chev-a-lier (shev-lir)n. 1. A member of certain male orders of knighthood or merit, such as the Legion of Honor in France. 2. A French nobleman of the lowest rank. Used as a title for such a nobleman. 3. A knight. 4. A chivalrous man.[Middle English chevaler, from Old French chevalier, from Late Latin caballarius, horseman, from caballus, horse.]
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chivalry (shivl-re) chiv-al-ries. 1. The medieval system, principles, and customs of knighthood. 2. The qualities idealized by knighthood, such as bravery, courtesy, honor, and gallantry toward women. A manifestation of any of these qualities. 3. A group of knights or gallant gentlemen.[Middle English chivalrie, from Old French chevalerie, from chevalier, knight. See CHEVALIER.]

chronological (kron-loji-kl, kron-) also chron-o-log-ic (-lojik)adj. Abbr. chron., chronol. 1. Arranged in order of time of occurrence.
2. Relating to or in accordance with chronology.
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Cos-sack (kosak) n. A member of a people of southern European Russia and adjacent parts of Asia, noted as cavalrymen especially during czarist times. [Russian kazak and Ukrainian kozak, both from South Turkic qazaq, adventurer. See KAZAKH.]--Cos'sack' adj.

Crimean War. A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. Russia was defeated, and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed.
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Diluvium - Pleis-to-cene (plist-sen) (4)
adj. Of, belonging to, or designating the geologic time, rock series, and sedimentary deposits of the earlier of the two epochs of the Quaternary Period, characterized by the alternate appearance and recession of northern glaciation and the appearance of the progenitors of human beings.n. The Pleistocene Epoch or system of deposits.

di-mor-phism (di-morfizm) n. 
1. Biology. The existence within a species of two distinct forms that differ in one or more characteristics, such as coloration, size, or shape. 
2. Botany. The occurrence of two distinct forms of the same parts in one plant, as in the juvenile and adult leaves of ivy. 
3. Chemistry. Physics. Dimorphic crystallization.
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dolichocephalic (doli-ko-s-falik) also dol-i-cho-ceph-a-lous (-sef-ls)adj. Having a relatively long head with a cephalic index below 76.

horses; asses; zebras; extinct animals

noun:   hoofed mammals having slender legs and a flat coat with a narrow mane along the back of the neck
adjective:   of or belonging to the family Equidae
adjective:   resembling a horse
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type genus of the Equidae: only surviving genus of the family Equidae

es-tu-ar-y (eschoo-ere) es-tu-ar-ies. 1. The part of the wide lower course of a river where its current is met by the tides. 2. An arm of the sea that extends inland to meet the mouth of a river.[Latin aestuarium, from aestus, tide, surge, heat.]--es'tu-ar'i-al (-are-l). adj
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fjord or fiord (fyord, fyord)n. A long, narrow, deep inlet of the sea between steep slopes.[Norwegian, from Old Norse fjordhr.]

Flan-ders (flandrz) A historical region of northwest Europe including parts of northern France, western Belgium, and southwest Netherlands along the North Sea. For many centuries it enjoyed virtual independence and great prosperity as a center of the cloth industry. The Hapsburg wars in the Low Countries caused the eventual division of the region, which suffered heavy damage during both World Wars.
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1. person of French descent
2. Celt of ancient Gaul
3. an ancient region of western Europe that included northern Italy and France and Belgium and part of Germany

hab-i-tus (habi-ts) habitus. The physical and constitutional characteristics of an individual, especially as related to the tendency to develop a certain disease.

hal-o-phile (hal-fil)n. An organism that requires a salty environment.
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he-gi-ra also he-ji-ra (hi-jir, hejr-)n. 1. A flight to escape danger. 2. Also Hegira. The flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina in 622, marking the beginning of the Muslim era.[Medieval Latin, from Arabic hijrah, emigration, flight, from hajara, to depart.]

He-rod-o-tus (hi-rod-ts) Known as "the Father of History". Fifth century. B.C.Greek historian whose writings, chiefly concerning the Persian Wars, are the earliest known examples of narrative history.

het-er-o-sis (het-rosis)n.[Late Greek heterosis, alteration, alteration of Greek heteroiosis, from heteroioun, to alter, from heteroios, different in kind, from heteros, other. See HETERO-.]--het'er-ot'ic (-rotik). adj.
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in-nate (i-nat, inat) adj. 1. Possessed at birth; inborn. 2. Possessed as an essential characteristic; inherent. 3. Of or produced by the mind rather than learned through experience: an innate knowledge of right and wrong.[Middle English innat, from Latin innatus, past participle of innasci, to be born in : in-, in. See IN-2 + nasci, to be born. See gen-.]--in-nate'ly adv. --in-nate'ness n.

Kal-myk (kalmik, kal-mik) also Kal-muck or Kal-muk (kalmuk, kal-muk) Kalmyk or Kal-myks also Kalmuck or Kal-mucks or Kalmuk or Kal-muks. 
1. A member of a Buddhist Mongol people now located primarily in Kalmyk. 2. The Mongolian language of this people.[Russian Kalmyk, from Kazan Tatar.] and the Netherlands
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karst (karst)n. An area of irregular limestone in which erosion has produced fissures, sinkholes, underground streams, and caverns.[Germanafter the Karst, a limestone plateau near Trieste.]--karst'ic adj.

Kir-ghiz or Kir-giz (kir-gez, -gyes) also
Kir-ghiz-stan or Kir-giz-stan or Kyr-gyz-stan (-ge-stan, -gye-) also Kir-ghi-zia or Kir-gi-zia (-gezh, -zhe-, -gyezi-y)A region and republic of west-central Asia bordering on northwest China. It was probably inhabited before the 13th century by a Turkic-speaking Mongolian people and was annexed by Russia in 1864. Part of a larger autonomous region of the U.S.S.R. after 1917, it was reorganized in 1926 and was constituent republic from 1936 to 1991. Bishkek is the capital. Population, 3,967,000.

lat-i-fun-di-um (lat-funde-m) lat-i-fun-di-a (-de-). A great landed estate, especially of the ancient Romans.[Latin latifundium : latus, broad + fundus, estate, base.]
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lym-phat-ic (lim-fatik)adj. 
1. Of or relating to lymph, a lymph vessel, or a lymph node. 
2. Lacking energy or vitality; sluggish.
n. A vessel that conveys lymph.[New Latin lymphaticus, from lympha, lymph. See LYMPH.]--lym-phat'i-cal-ly adv.

marsh (marsh)n. An area of soft, wet, low-lying land, characterized by grassy vegetation and often forming a transition zone between water and land.[Middle English, from Old English mersc.
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Mes-o-po-ta-mi-a (mes-p-tame-)An ancient region of southwest Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq. Probably settled before 5000 B.C., the area was the home of numerous early civilizations, including Sumer, Akkad, Babylonia, and Assyria. It declined in importance after Mongol invaders destroyed its extensive irrigation system in A.D. 1258.

Moor (moor)n. 1. A member of a Muslim people of mixed Berber and Arab descent, now living chiefly in northwest Africa. 2. One of the Muslims who invaded Spain in the 8th century and established a civilization in Andalusia that lasted until the late 15th century.[Middle English More, from Old French, from Medieval Latin Morus, from Latin Maurus, Mauritanian, from Greek Mauros.]
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mor-phol-o-gy (mor-fol-je) mor-phol-o-gies. Abbr. morph., morphol. 1. The branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of organisms without consideration of function. The form and structure of an organism or one of its parts: the morphology of a cell; the morphology of vertebrates. 2. Linguistics. The study of the structure and form of words in language or a language, including inflection, derivation, and the formation of compounds.--mor'pho-log'i-cal (-f-loji-kl). or mor'pho-log'ic adj. --mor'pho-log'i-cal-ly adv. --mor-phol'o-gist n.

1. relating to Germany and Scandinavia
2. resembling peoples of Scandinavia
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Nor-i-cum (nori-km, nor-)An ancient country and province of the Roman Empire south of the Danube River in present-day Austria west of Vienna. It was incorporated into the Roman Empire in the first century B.C. and prospered as a frontier colony until it was overrun by Germanic peoples in the fifth century A.D.

Nor-man1 (normn) n. Abbr. Norm., Nor. 1. A member of a Scandinavian people who settled in northern France in the tenth century. A descendant of this people, especially one ruling or inhabiting England from the time of the Norman Conquest. 2. A native or inhabitant of Normandy.
adj. Abbr. Norm., Nor. 1. Of or relating to Normandy, the Normans, their culture, or their language. 2. Of or being a style of Romanesque architecture that was introduced from Normandy into England before 1066 and that flourished until about 1200.[Middle English, from Old French Normant, from Old Norse Nordhmadhr : nordhr, north + madhr, man, and from Old English Norman (, variant of Northman : north, north
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Nu-mid-i-a An ancient country of northwest Africa corresponding roughly to present-day Algeria. It was part of the Carthaginian empire before the Punic Wars and became a separate kingdom after 201 B.C. Conquered by Rome in 46 B.C. and invaded by the Vandals in the fifth century A.D., Numidia was overrun by the Arabs in the eighth century.--Nu-mid'i-an adj. n.

os-te-ol-o-gy (oste-ol-je) os-te-ol-o-gies. 1. The branch of anatomy that deals with the structure and function of bones. 2. The bone structure or system of an animal.

ox-i-da-tion (oksi-dashn) n. 1. The combination of a substance with oxygen. 2. A reaction in which the atoms in an element lose electrons and the valence of the element is correspondingly increased.
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Par-the-non (parth-non, -nn)n. The chief temple of the goddess Athena built on the acropolis at Athens between 447 and 432 B.C. and considered a supreme example of Doric architecture.[Latin Parthenon, from Greek, from parthenos, virgin.]

Per-sia (purzh, -sh) Abbr. Pers.1. Also Per-sian Empire (-zhn, -shn). A vast empire of southwest Asia founded by Cyrus II after 546 B.C. and brought to the height of its power and glory by Darius I and his son Xerxes. Alexander the Great conquered the empire in 334 B.C. A later empire was established by the Sassanids (A.D. 226-637). 
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Phoe-ni-cia (fi-nish, -nesh) An ancient maritime country of southwest Asia consisting of city-states along the eastern Mediterranean Sea in present-day Syria and Lebanon. Its people became the foremost navigators and traders of the Mediterranean by 1250 B.C. and established numerous colonies, including Carthage in northern Africa. The Phoenicians traveled to the edges of the known world at the time and introduced their alphabet, based on symbols for sounds rather than cuneiform or hieroglyphic representations, to the Greeks and other early peoples. Phoenicia's culture was gradually absorbed by Persian and later Hellenistic civilizations.

1. the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms
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Pic-ar-dy (pikr-de) A historical region of northern France bordering on the English Channel. The name was first used in the 13th century for a number of small feudal holdings. Picardy was contested by France and England during the Hundred Years' War and became part of the French crown lands in 1477.

1. from 2 million to l3 million years ago; growth of mountains; cooling of climate; more and larger mammals

Poi-tiers (pwa-tya)A city of west-central France east-southeast of Nantes. Settled by a Gallic people, it was an early Christian center with important monasteries. Nearby, Edward the Black Prince defeated and captured John II of France on September 19, 1356. Population, 79,350.
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1. sculpture in which the figures are raised above a surrounding flat plane
2. shapes carved on a surface so as to stand out from the background

re-mount (re-mount) v. tr. re-mount-ed, re-mount-ing, re-mounts. 1. To mount again. 2. To supply with a fresh horse.n. (remount, re-mount). A fresh horse.

Sam-ar-kand (samr-kand, s-mr-kant) A city of southern Uzbekistan southwest of Tashkent. Dating from the third or fourth millennium B.C., the city was conquered by Alexander the Great in 329, taken by the Arabs in the eighth century A.D., and destroyed by Genghis Khan c. 1220. It was rebuilt as a fabled center of great splendor and opulence when it became (c. 1370) the capital of Tamerlane's empire. Population, 371,000
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Sar-a-cen (sar-sn )n. 1. A member of a pre-Islamic nomadic people of the Syrian-Arabian deserts. 2. An Arab. 3. A Muslim, especially of the time of the Crusades.

Se-le-ne (s-lene)n. Greek Mythology. The goddess of the moon.

Stra-bo (strabo) 63?. B.C.-A.D. 24?Greek geographer and historian whose great work, Geography, is the only extant text that describes the people and countries known to the Greeks and Romans during the reign of Augustus.
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Teu-ton-ic (too-tonik, tyoo-)adj. Abbr. Teut. 1. Of or relating to the ancient Teutons. 2. Of or relating to the Germanic languages or their speakers.n. Abbr. Teut. Germanic.[Latin Teutonicus, from Teutoni, Teutons.

Tyrol or Ti-rol (t-rol, ti-, tirol)A region of the eastern Alps in western Austria and northern Italy. Inhabited in ancient times by Celtic peoples, the Tyrol constantly passed back and forth, in whole or in part, between Austria and Italy in the 1800's. Its present division dates from the Treaty of St. Germain in 1919. The Tyrolean Alps are a popular tourist area.--Ty-rol'le-an or Tyr'o-lese' (tir-lez, -les, tir-). adj. n.

Van-dal (vandl)n. 1. vandal. One who willfully or maliciously defaces or destroys public or private property. 2. A member of a Germanic people that overran Gaul, Spain, and northern Africa in the fourth and fifth centuries A.D. and sacked Rome in 455.[Latin Vandalus, probably of Germanic origin.]
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World War I ( wurld wor wun) n. Abbr. WWI A war fought from 1914 to 1918, in which Great Britain, France, Russia, Belgium, Italy, Japan, the United States, and other allies defeated Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.

World War II ( wurld wor too) n. Abbr. WWII A war fought from 1939 to 1945, in which Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, the United States, China, and other allies defeated Germany, Italy, and Japan.

Ye-ni-sei (yeni-sa, yi-ni-sya)A river of central Russia flowing about 4,023 km (2,500 mi) westward and generally north to the Kara Sea through Yenisei Bay, a long estuary.
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