Original desert Arabian stallion
true meaning of the word, the most “purely” bred purebred (hence
fullblooded in our concept) is the Arabian horse who was bred in central
Arabia by the Bedouin tribe
Nejd and a tribe
Shomar. There are not many
of these fullblooded Arabians horses even in Nejd. The foundation and
development of this breed is credited to five bloodlines/families. These
are: Ku-Hai-lan, Sak-La-We, U-Bai-Jan, (oo-bayan) Had-Ban, Ham-Da-Ne. These five
families together are called Al-Kham-Sa (all five) and/or also Ku-Hai-Lan.
that do not have both parents from Al-Kham-Sa, the Bedouins call Kadish,
however Kadish becomes any fullblooded mare that was covered/bred
accidentally by a Kadish stallion.
Besides the previously mentioned family lines, there are also other valued bloodlines. According their relations the closest are the following families/lines.
Arabian horse is a genuine purebred (fullblood) in the true meaning of the word, because he is the descendant of the most refined horses from the ancient regions of Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, he has the blood of the old Iranian horses and no other foreign blood was mixed with his breed throughout the ages, and because over several centuries the Arabs managed to protect their horses from mixing with other breeds.
The endeavor to keep
this most precious blood pure led naturally to inbreeding, which was on
the other hand balanced with relatively tough breeding (conditions) that
only individuals of hard/solid “constitution” (foundation) could
endure. The Bedouin with all his “love” for his horse, actually left the
foal nurse only for a month and then fed him camel’s milk, dates and
sometimes gave him the privilege to graze on the edges of the desert. Only
the wealthy could afford to provide expensive barley imported from India.
When the tribe was on the move, the little foal had to endure all the
hardship and suffering associated with traveling on the desert lands,
otherwise he didn’t get to enjoy much of free running, because the
Bedouin fearing he may get lost in the desert, tied the youngster either
to his tent or used hobbles (tied his “lower” front or hind legs
Horses in Arabia are
broke to ride after the age of two. The Bedouins ride mostly in gallop or
in “rocking side to side” pace (pacing) and are very hard/tough on their horses. They almost always ride exclusively mares, because these are
to the owners the most precious property and that is why they also never
sell them. The tribes always have a lack of feed, so only one or two
stallions at most are kept. The Bedouin see the mare as the “keeper/producer”
of the bloodline and her foals are named after her. Excessive stallion
stock, that is not sufficient for reproduction, the Bedouins sell off at the edges of the desert. Though the stallions are faster, the mares endure
better over further distance. To a “robbery expedition” the Bedouin
rides a camel, while he ties the mare all tacked up to it, and only during
the actual attack (then escape/return) he rides the horse. He rides the
mare only in a halter without a bit, while he controls her with his
legs and stirrups with the inside wider edges shaped to a point. Only the stallions
are ridden with the help of a bit; the Bedouins do not castrate their
stallions because they perceive it as a sin. The Arabian horse is bred
tough with very low maintenance and immense endurance in long travels or
fast rides. It is stated that he can handle several days in a row the
distance of 150 km (93.21 miles) per day during the hottest desert days
with minimal amounts of feed and water. If needed a mare can handle a
distance over 200 km (124.27 miles) in one day under the same conditions.
Stallions exported from Arabia are not all Ku-Hai-Lan (Kuheilan) because the Bedouins are jealously guarding their most refined and treasured horses and showing them not to the merchants. At best they show Al-Kham-Sa, which means that the horse is only from the sire’s side a Ku-Hai-Lan, in our terms Arabian halfblood.
Ludvik K Stanek a.k.a.
from the 1953 Special Zoo-Technique - Breeding of Horses
Published in 1953 by the Czechoslovakian Academy of Agricultural Science and certified by the Ministry of Agriculture.
Written by: MVDr Ludvik Ambroz, Frabtisek Bilek, MVDr Karel Blazek, Ing. Jaromir Dusek, Ing. Karel Hartman, Hanus Keil, pro. MVDr Emanuel Kral, Karel Kloubek, Ing. Dr. Frantisek Lerche, Ing. Dr Vaclav Michal, Ing. Dr Zdenek Munki, Ing. Vladimir Mueller, MVDr Julius Penicka, pro. MVDr Emil Pribyl, MVDr Lev Richter, prof. Ing. Dr Josef Rechta, MVDr Karel Sejkora and Ing. Dr Jindrich Steinitz.